Peptide Antigen Design
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There are two basic strategies that can be used to address peptide antigen design. Both approaches should be taken into consideration when analyzing the protein sequence.
- A unique sequence or region should be selected to ensure the specificity of the target protein.
- A homologous sequence should be chosen so that a single antibody can recognize multiple proteins.
Continuous Epitopes, Discontinuous Epitopes:
Targeting the N-terminus or C-terminus:
Amino acid classifications
Hydrophobic (non-polar) amino acids: Ala, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Val
Uncharged (polar) amino acids: Asn, Cys, Gly, Gln, Pro, Ser, Thr, Tyr
Acidic (polar) amino acids: Asp, Glu
Basic (polar) amino acids: His, Lys, Arg
Difficult Amino Acids
Carrier Protein Coupling Considerations:
Common carrier proteins used for antibody production:
Multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs)
A. N-terminal amino group
B. C-terminal carboxyl group
C. alpha-Amino group on lysine
D. Hydroxyl group on serine, threonine, and tyrosine
E. Guanidine group on arginine
F. Thiol group on cysteine